The past two years have been anything but consistent.

大流行离开美国worst recession in history。People struggled to adjust to remote work, and what we defined as "normal" varied day-by-day.

And yet: Out of that turmoil and inconsistency, we now see a record number of people quitting their jobs in pursuit of better opportunities.

According to theU.S. Bureau of Labor,有400万人在2021年4月辞职,七月又有400万假。

Which leads me to question: Amidst the past two years of unpredictability — and a resulting lack of security — why are so many people taking the leap now?

Here, we'll explore what employee turnover is, how much it could be costing your business, and how to calculate employee turnover. Plus, how employers can minimize the effects of what's being called the Great Resignation, according to experts.

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What is employee turnover?

Employee turnover refers to the percentage of employees who leave your company during a given period of time.

Your company's employee turnover rate includes anyone who leaves for任何原因。This includes resignations, terminations, or retirements. However, turnover rate typically doesn't include internal movement, such as an employee switching teams or being promoted.

Turnover can cost a business thousands — if not millions — of dollars, and can negatively impact team morale and performance.

All of which is to say: The lower your turnover rates, the better. Low turnover rates signal a healthy, engagingcompany culture— which is critical for any business' long-term success.

To determine how your company's turnover rates compare, let's explore average turnover rates by industry next.

Employee Turnover Rates in 2020 (By Industry)

Employee turnover rates vary by industry, so you'll want to do your own research to determine how your company's turnover rates stack up against competitors.

However, to give you a sense for an appropriate range, let's take a look at a few turnover rates by industry asreported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor(重要的是要注意,这些营业额率是从2020年开始的,其营业率异常高):

  • Professional and business services: 69.2%
  • Health care and social assistance: 45.2%
  • Trade, transportation, and utilities: 60.5%
  • Retail trade: 69.7%
  • Leisure and hospitality: 129.3%
  • 政府: 24.2%
  • Real estate and rental and leasing: 49.4%

Next, let's look at average employee turnover rates.

Average Employee Turnover Rates

In 2021, the overall turnover rate across industries was 57.3% — but that drops to just25% when considering voluntary turnoveralone.

自愿离职趋势继续上升。实际上,工作学院的2020年保留报告states that there's been an 8% increase in turnover rates since 2018, and an 88% increase since 2010.

Average turnover rates varies significantly depending on your industry. However, a 90% employee retention rate is generally considered good — which means the closer you can get to a 10% turnover rate, the better.

Cost of Employee Turnover

The cost of employee turnover is broken down into the costs of four factors — the cost to terminate, the cost to hire a replacement, the vacancy cost (i.e. how many days the job is open multiplied by the average value of the job per day), and the productivity cost (i.e. how long it takes the new hire to get up to speed).

德勤的乔什·贝辛says the cost of losing an employeecan range from tens of thousands of dollars to 1.5-2X the employee's annual salary. This means, if you lose an employee who was making $70,000, you can expect to lose upwards of $140,000.

Alternatively, the Work Institute cites the cost ofemployee turnover at roughly 30%of the employee's salary — meaning, if you lose an employee who was making $70,000, you'll expect to lose closer to $21,000.

Employee Benefit News suggests a similar turnover costat roughly 33% of a worker's annual salary.

所以,不管你切…你会失去a lot of money with each individual employee who leaves. Of course, turnover costs are so difficult to quantify because they're so specific to each employee's role and salary.

When determining your own turnover costs, you'll also want to keep in mind the negative impact high turnover rates can have on company culture and employee productivity — which could lead to even更多的lost revenue down the line.

How to Calculate Employee Turnover [Plus High and Low Rates]

To calculate your turnover rates, you need to divide the number of employees who leave your company by the totalaveragenumber of employees, and then multiply by 100.

And, to find your average number of employees, you'll want to take the number of active employees at the beginning and end of each period, and then divide by two.

how to calculate employee turnover要理解这个概念,让我们考虑一个例子。如果您在本月初有1,200名员工,在月底有1,250名员工,则每月平均员工人数为1,225(1,200 + 1,250 / 2)。

Now, let's calculate your monthly turnover rate. In the month of September, if 7 people left your company, your turnover rate formula looks like this:

how to calculate employee turnover monthly要计算年度营业额(通常是公司评估员工趋势时使用的数量),您需要找到平均数量annualemployees. If at the beginning of 2021 you had 1,200 employees, and at the end of 2021 you had 1,500 employees, your average number of employees is 1,350 (1,200 + 1,500 / 2).

Now, let's calculate your annual employee turnover. If you had 200 employees leave in 2021, your annual turnover rate formula looks like this:

how to calculate employee turnover annualTo put these numbers into context, you'll want to determine what a high and low turnover rate for your industry looks like, since turnover rates vary greatly depending on industry. For instance, retail and e-commerce saw a2021年换手率30.7%, while thetechnology industry's turnover was roughly 20%, and金融服务接近15%

Why is turnover so high?

To reduce employee turnover, we first need to understand what's causing it.

For starters, we're seeing employee turnover increasing on a national scale. The Labor Departmentreports that job openings outnumbered the unemployedby more than 2 million in July as companies struggled to fill positions.

Additionally,Microsoft's 2021 Work Trend Indexpredicts40%的全球劳动力将考虑离开their employer this year.

This extreme workplace shift — being called the "Great Resignation" — is due to a variety of factors.

为了更好地了解过去一年的高尚额,我与之交谈Lily Zheng, a Diversity, Equity & Inclusion Strategist and Consultant.

Zheng told me, "We call it a great resignation but it's more of a greatcorrection。这些员工已经决定在2020年离开,但觉得自己做不到。”


As shown below,41% of respondents cite lack of work-life balanceas the primary reason for high turnover. Another37% additionally cite a lack of flexible work schedules

why was turnover high in 2020 and 2021

HubSpot Blog Research

In 2020 and 2021, flexibility, autonomy, and the ability to work from anywhere became a necessity as the world shifted to a pandemic and post-pandemic workforce. And even as offices begin to re-open, we see employees continue to prioritize work-life balance and flexibility.

A few other factors? Lack of remote work options, lack of career growth opportunities, burnout, and employees switching careers to pursue other passions.

For better or worse, the pandemic permanently shifted people's mindsets when it comes to what they value. And one of the biggest value shifts is a newfound prioritization of time.

Simply put, people will work hard for your company if you enable them to choose when, where, and how they work best.



1. Give employees a remote or hybrid option (if conducive to your business and work culture).

Now that people have settled into a remote lifestyle, many of them don'twantto return to the office. In fact, when HubSpot surveyed roughly 500 marketers,40% of respondents said they'd like to continue working remotely full-timeeven when given the option to return to the office.

远程生活方式使员工能够将更多时间用于工作以外的优先事项。例如,我有一位同事现在花了早晨的日记和冥想 - 这极大地超过了她的上班时间,她的上班时间被困在工作中。


People have recognized the amount of valuable time they win back when they're fully remote. So if your company doesn't offer remote or hybrid options, some of your employees will inevitably leave.

2. Prioritize your employees' well-being.

Promoting wellness at work has been proven to result in better productivity and less employee turnover — which is why it's a critical strategy to consider when aiming to reduce turnover.

As Lily Zheng writes inher LinkedIn postwith over 19,000 reactions, "Your employees aren't leaving just because they've found better opportunities elsewhere. They're leaving because this is the first chance they've gotten to re-balance the scales of their own wellbeing and success, scales that you and your company swung out of whack during the pandemic."

Seeing as the post received over 19,000 reactions, I'm willing to bet many employees — and employers — agree that, in some instances, well-being wasn't prioritized by companies in 2020.

要投资于您的员工的福祉,请考虑创建一个wellness program,其中包括旨在增加体育锻炼,减轻员工压力以及提供营养和健康信息的策略。

Additionally, a few big factors that contribute to a positive workplace experience include flexible work hours, an emphasis on autonomy, an investment indiversity and inclusion,关注员工的心理健康和心理安全最重要的是。

3. Foster a sense of belonging.

If you want to reduce turnover, take belongingness seriously.

A sense of belonging is undeniably critical for long-term employee satisfaction. In fact,there's a91%的员工说他们贝尔之间的相关性ongand those who stay engaged at work, and a50% drop in attrition在报告归属感的员工中。

As Belonging Strategist and Managing Director of BelongingIQAbam Mamboputs it, "Employees who feel a sense of belonging tend to stay engaged, productive, and are far less likely to leave than those who feel excluded. So if you want your good employees to stay, invest in belongingness."


  • 任命和管道包容性领导者
  • Recruit and empower a diverse workforce
  • Implement fair and equitable employment practices
  • Reward performance
  • Reframe your 'speak-up' program to ensure employees are heard, treated fairly, and not retaliated against

最终,一种归属感有助于员工在工作中的自豪感,幸福和满足感。因此,投资于归属感不仅可以帮助您的营业率 - 正确完成的情况也会对您的底线产生积极影响,因为属于订婚的员工也是订婚的员工。

abam mambo quote on turnover rates-1

4. Use a net promoter score to measure employee satisfaction.

Anet promoter score (NPS)调查可以帮助您衡量员工满意度,以及员工向朋友或家人推荐工作场所的可能性。

该调查使用0-10的量表,而高范围内的调查(9-10之间)是您最忠诚和敬业的员工,他们将通过口碑来帮助您的成长。下一个批次(7-8分之间的得分)很满意,但略微无动于衷 - 这些员工更容易受到竞争对手的报价。

And, finally, you have your lower scorers (between 0-6). This signifies a group of employees who aren't fully satisfied at your company. These people are less engaged and more willing to leave.

To lower turnover rates, it's vital you determine what's working for your employees, and what isn't. If you aren't measuring employee satisfaction, there's no way for you to know how to improve it. A NPS can help you determine weak spots in your current culture and opportunities to strengthen your employee offerings, which will enable you to keep more employees around for the long-haul.

5.提供补偿titive pay and benefits.

Earning more money is the top reason people leave jobs. In fact,Payscale Research发现,被调查的人中有25%的人离开了工作— ranking far above people who left because they were unhappy, wanted more flexibility, or needed to relocate.

Offering competitive pay depends on a variety of factors. You'll want to consider your geographic area and industry to determine a baseline competitive rate.

此外,重要的是要牢记您正在招聘的专业知识以及供求 - 例如,如果您正在寻找高级开发人员,并且您知道开发人员的库相对较小区域,您可能需要增加基础工资才能竞争。

If you can't increase base rate, consider offering competitive benefits packages, instead. Tuition reimbursement, PTO, flexible hours, fitness discounts, and parental leave are all factors to consider when creating acomprehensive employee benefits package

6. Provide professional development opportunities.

Learning and professional development matters for long-term employee satisfaction.

Consider, for instance, how94%的员工将留在公司更长的时间bob全站appif the company invested in helping them learn.

Additionally, did you knowGen Z learners watched 50% more hours of learning contentin 2020 compared to 2019?

Ultimately, the desire to learn and grow is fundamental to human nature. So investing in training and development opportunities is vital for reducing employee turnover.

AsGreenhouse'sDirector of Talent AcquisitionAriana Moonputs it, "Investing in growing and up-skilling employees is especially important in the context of our rapidly evolving digital environment today."



As Moon puts it, "Companies need to think holistically about how internal movement can benefit the overall business — through improving morale and productivity, elongating tenure due to new opportunities for growth, and developing employees who have multifaceted skill sets and are more resilient to change."

At HubSpot, we offer development and training courses that focus on clear communication, leading effectively, giving and receiving feedback, and expanding impact. These trainings are offered by HubSpotters, for HubSpotters.

To create an effective learning and development program, you'll want to map out a clear career growth plan for each department. Next, you'll need to determine which skills are vital for each role. Once you have a list of skills, you can begin mapping out a plan that includes training and development opportunities for each of those necessary skills.

7. Be thoughtful and strategic when hiring new candidates.

Retention rates will vary greatly depending on yourhiring process。The more time and effort you can put into finding the right candidate(s) who will fit well into your existing organization, the less likely you are to see high turnover rates.

As Co-Founder and CEO ofCrosschqMichael Fitzsimmons puts it,"Historically, hiring managers have been incentivized to increase headcount as fast as possible, but the data shows that approach is a losing proposition. As recruiters work quickly to keep pace with filling roles, they rely on imperfect gauges for candidate quality — including resume claims, interview feedback, and perhaps traditional reference checks."

"Unfortunately, these methods are scattered at best, introducing bias and frankly, noise. In fact, Crosschq's research has shown only a 9% correlation between interview scores and the quality of a hiring decision."

Fitzsimmons adds, "The finish line isn't the new hire's first day on the job ... it's the productivity, culture fit, and retention of that hire for months and years to come. It's important to align what you're hiring for with what you're expecting on the other side."

To improve your hiring strategy,Fitzsimmons建议对您的招聘工具和流程进行现代化现代化,以更好地利用数据见解来改善招聘决策。

Additionally, it's vital you're clear and honest upfront with candidates about a role. Even though it might be tempting to paint an unrealistic picture of a role to secure high-quality candidates, it's better in the long-run if you ensure your candidates are fully aware of both the perks and challenges of each rolethey're hired.

阿丽亚娜·穆恩(Ariana Moon)同意,招聘对于长期保留至关重要 - 就像入职。

She told me, "Many industry surveys have shown thatover 85% of new hires做决定在fi(留下或离开)rst six months of employment. That number can be traced back to the onboarding experience.69%of employees will stay for longer than 3 years if their onboarding experience is good, while1 in 5will leave within 45 days if it's bad."

To improve your onboarding process, Moon suggests taking a hard look at your programming through the lens of various employee personas, and focus on creating experiences where each new hire can feel heard, represented, supported, and enabled for success.

8. Develop an inclusive culture for distributed teams.

Inclusivity is undeniably paramount for ensuring each employee feels valued — but as the workplace changes, you'll need to adjust your approach to ensure you're still creating an inclusive environment for a hybrid or fully remote team.

"To create an inclusive culture," Zheng told me, "I'd first encourage employers to show humility and admit you don't know the best solutions for a new, hybrid environment. Host focus groups and listening sessions, and ask your employees what would be ideal for them — and then collect the data."

As Zheng describes, an inclusive workplace will look different for everyone. Perhaps your data shows your team wants to return to the office — in which case, the ideal solution is to support a return-to-office policy.

Alternatively, maybe your workforce has people who want to feel a greater sense of connection, but don't necessarily want to return to the office. "In that case," Zheng says, "maybe you'd benefit from considering a model where you ask people to come back to the office for social activities or team-building activities, but outside of those activities you support remote work."

Of course, if you have a distributed team with employees across the globe already, you'll want to brainstorm how you can create a more inclusive culture in a fully remote environment.

Reducing employee turnover will likely require more than just the eight tips mentioned above. Employee satisfaction varies between industries and individual companies, so you'll want to take the time to research what truly drives people towards — or away from — your business.


And, as Zheng reminds me — reflection is key. "It's important for employers to recognize that employees have a lot of power right now, and so it's not the time to be complacent … And, [as you reflect on your employees' experience], go back and consider which aspects of the 'status quo' havealways失败了您的大部分劳动力。如果您想生存到2022年及以后,您需要考虑什么?”

Ultimately, the pandemic shifted people's perspectives and values when it comes to work. And that's not necessarily a bad thing. If you notice your turnover rates are higher than normal, consider what you need to change to remain competitive in a post-pandemic landscape.

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Originally published Nov 22, 2021 7:00:00 AM, updated November 22 2021


Human Resources